Навчальний посібник “Практикум з перекладу з англійської мови на українську (міжнародні організації)” призначається для студентів старших курсів за спеціальністю “Міжнародні відносини”.
Метою посібника є розвиток і закріплення навичок перекладу з фахової літератури з англійської мови на українську і навпаки.
Посібник передбачає тренування різних видів перекладів, а також вивчення найбільш поширених абревіатур, фразеологізмів, прислів’їв сучасної англійської мови, що, в свою чергу, сприятиме збагаченню словникового запасу студента-міжнародника.
Посібник складається з чотирьох уроків. Кожен урок поділяється на три розділи:
1 - тексти загальної проблематики (міжнародні організації, документи міжнародних організацій, абревіатури, що стосуються міжнародних організацій);
2 - фразеологізми сучасної української мови, які організовані за ведучим семантичним словом;
3 - прислів’я сучасної англійської мови, які гуртуються за морфологічною ознакою.
В кінці кожного розділу додаються завдання і тексти, за допомогою яких перевіряється ступінь засвоєння студентами матеріалів посібника.
Навчальний посібник побудовано з використанням оригінального англомовного матеріалу з фаху.
1. Give an oral summary of the information on
1. What is NATO?
Fundamental Tasks of the
3. Fundamental Operating Principles.
What is NATO?
The North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949 brought into
being an Alliance of independent countries with a common interest in
maintaining peace and defending their freedom through political solidarity and
adequate military defence to deter and, if necessary, repel all possible forms
of aggression against them. Created within the framework of Article 51 of the
United Nations Charter, which reaffirms the inherent right of individual or
collective defence, the
NATO is the Organisation which serves the
NATO's essential purpose is thus to safeguard the
freedom and security of all its members by political and military means in
accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Based on common
values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, the
just and lasting
peaceful order in
The fundamental operating principle of the
The resulting sense of equal
security amongst the members of the Alliance, regardless of differences in
their circumstances or in their national military capabilities, contributes to
overall stability within Europe and thus to the creation of conditions
conducive to increased cooperation both among Alliance members and with other
countries. It is on this basis that members of the
The Fundamental Tasks of the
The means by which the Alliance carries out its security policies include the maintenance of a military capability sufficient to prevent war and to provide for effective defence; an overall capability to manage successfully crises affecting the security of its members; and active political efforts favouring dialogue with other nations and a cooperative approach to European security, including measures to bring about further progress in the field of arms control and disarmament.
To achieve its essential purpose,
It provides one of the
indispensable foundations for stable security in
In accordance with Article 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty, it serves as a transatlantic forum for Allied consultations on any issues affecting the vital interests of its members, including developments which might pose risks to their security. It facilitates appropriate coordination of their efforts in fields of common concern.
It provides deterrence and defence against any form of aggression against the territory of any NATO member state.
It preserves the strategic balance
The structures created within NATO enable member countries to coordinate their policies in order to fulfil these complementary tasks. They provide for continuous consultation and cooperation in political, economic and other non-military fields as well as the formulation of joint plans for the common defence; the establishment of the infrastructure needed to enable military forces to operate; and arrangements for joint training programmes and exercises. Underpinning these activities is a complex civilian and military structure involving administrative, budgetary and planning staffs, as well as agencies which have been established by the member countries of the Alliance in order to coordinate work in specialised fields - for example, the communications needed to facilitate political consultation and command and control of military forces and the logistics support needed to sustain military forces.
Fundamental Operating Principles
The fundamental operating principles of the
The military dimension of the
- Security is
indivisible. An attack on one member of the
- NATO's security policy is based on collective defence, including an integrated military structure as well as relevant cooperation and coordination agreements.
maintenance of an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional forces based in
Nuclear forces are also being greatly reduced. The
withdrawal of short-range land-based nuclear weapons from
The Strategic Concept underlines that
2. Read and translate the text into your native language:
In international law and diplomatic practice the term "treaty is used in two senses. In a generic sense, it refers to all agreements between states which are of a binding character, and in a restricted sense it refers to a title given to instruments containing such international agreements. Instruments setting out agreements between states bear different titles, such as Treaty, Agreement, Convention, Protocol, Act, Declaration, Statute, Regulations, Provisions, Pact, Covenant, Compromis, Accord, Arrangements, Modus Vivendi, Exchange of Notes and Concordat. It is, however, not obligatory to give a title to an international agreement, as agreements can be concluded even by exchange of letters or telegrams Some of the agreements are highly formal in character whilst others are not. The titles given to international agreements have little significance from the legal point of view, as all international agreements, by whatever name called, are equally binding in nature. In diplomatic literature, the terms "treaty", "convention", and "protocol" are all applied more or less indiscriminately to international agreements Sometimes the same instrument is designated in different places in its text by different terms. There is no obvious explanation for this diversity of terminology. International law prescribes neither the form nor the procedure for the making of international engagements, and consequently their form depends upon the will and convenience of the parties. In practice it is governed also by usage and varies depending on whether agreement is reached between states, heads of states, governments (increasingly used), or particular ministers or departments.
It is not every international instrument, however formal it may be, that would be regarded as a treaty. Unless the instrument creates contractual obligations between two or more states, the essential requirements of a treaty are not fulfilled The binding nature of treaty obligations is the oldest and doubtless the most fundamental rule of international law.
Of all international engagements which are intended to have an obligatory character the most important are "treaties", the term being derived from the French trailer [< L tractare], which means "to negotiate".
The next most solemn type of international engagement is the "convention", derived from the Latin word “conventio“ meaning "agreement". This term is frequently, though not necessarily, employed in connection with agreements to which a large number of countries are parties, and especially to agreements of the law-making type.
The treaty document covers the following parts:
1. The preamble containing:
(a) a list of the heads of state in whose names the treaty is concluded;
(b) a list of plenipotentiaries;
(c) usually a statement of the purposes and objectives of the treaty, sometimes accompanied by a recital of principles and circumstances;
(d) a declaration that the plenipotentiaries have the necessary powers.
2 The text generally containing, in the form of numbered articles, the respective agreements of the signatories. It also indicates:
(a) the requirements for bringing the treaty into force;
(b) its duration;
(c) the place where the exchange of ratifications will take place.
3. The final clauses, specifying that the plenipotentiaries have signed the treaty and have affixed their seals thereto, and including information on:
(a) the number of signed copies;
(b) if in more than one language, the languages used, and that each is equally authentic;
(c) the place and date of the signature.
According to the importance of the treaty, the preamble can be more or less enlarged. The statements in the final clauses are, on the contrary, usually identical.
The provisions of the treaty determine the manner in which and the date on which the treaty enters into force. Where the treaty does not specify a date, there is a presumption that the treaty is intended to come into force as soon as all the negotiating states have consented to be bound by the treaty.
After a treaty is concluded, the written instruments, which provide formal evidence of consent to be bound by ratification, accession, and so on, and also reservations and other declarations, are placed in the custody of a depositary, who may be one or more states, or an international organization. The depositary has functions of considerable importance relating to matters of form, including provision of information as to the time at which the treaty enters into force. The United Nations Secretariat plays a significant role as depositary of multilateral treaties.
As regards treaties, conventions, etc., these, when concluded between two countries, are now ordinarily signed in two texts, viz., in the respective languages of the two countries, though exceptions occur. In the case of treaties of a general nature - multilateral treaties - concluded between many states, the usual practice was to use French, but now French and English. Those concluded under the auspices of the United Nations normally have texts in its official languages, all equally authentic.
The authenticity of the text is established by means of the signatures of the plenipotentiaries. It will depend on the circumstances whether signature alone is sufficient to bring the treaty into force or whether some further step, such as ratification, is necessary.
Sometimes, however, when an appreciable interval occurs between the conclusion of the negotiations and the signature of a treaty, the plenipotentiaries append to it their initials ne varietur as a guarantee of the authenticity of the text.
A Answer the questions:
1. What are the most typical forms of international agreement? 2. What does the term "treaty" imply in a generic and a restricted sense? 3. What is the compositional design of treaties and conventions? 4. Which part of a treaty contains a statement of the purpose? 5. And which part embodies the substantive commitments undertaken by the contracting parties? 6. How is the authenticity of the text established? 7. What languages are used m treaties and other international compacts?
B Suggest the Ukrainian for:
1) accession; 2) the authenticity of the text; 3) a binding international agreement; 4) contractual (treaty) obligations 5) entry into force; 6) the exchange of ratifications; 7) equally authentic; 8) the final clauses of a treaty; 9) a multilateral treaty; 10) the negotiating states; 11) a party to a treaty; 12) the plenipotentiaries; 13) the provisions of a treaty; 14) the signatory governments; 15) under the auspices of the United Nations; 16) to affix one's seal; 17) to place (an instrument) in the custody of a depositary.
3. Study the text and do the following assignements:
a) Point out words and phrases pertaining to the formal style.
b) Precis the text in about one-third of its size.
The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments.
They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law.
They seek to promote stability and
well-being in the
They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for the preservation of peace and security.
They therefore agree to this North Atlantic Treaty:
The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international dispute in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered, and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations.
The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them.
In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of this Treaty, theParties, separately and jointly, by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack.
The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened.
The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all, and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective selfdefence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually, and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security.
For the purpose of Article 5, an armed attack on one or more of the Parties is deemed to include an armed attack:
a) on the territory of any of the Parties in Europe or North America, on the Algerian Departments of France(2), on the territory of Turkey or on the islands under the jurisdiction of any of the Parties in the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer;
b) on the forces, vessels, or aircraft of any of the Parties, when in or over these territories or any area in Europe in which occupation forces of any of the Parties were stationed on the date when the Treaty entered into force or the Mediterranean Sea or the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer.
The Treaty does not effect, and shall not be interpreted as affecting, in any way the rights and obligations under the Charter of the Parties which are members of the United Nations, or the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security.
1 As amended by Article 2 of the Protocol
Treaty on the
2 On 16th January 1963 the
Council noted that insofar as the former Algerian Departments of
clauses of this Treaty had become inapplicable as from
Each Party declares that none of the international engagements now in force between it and any other of the Parties or any third State is in conflict with the provisions of this Treaty, and undertakes not to enter into any international engagement in conflict with this Treaty.
The Parties hereby establish a Council, on which each of them shall be represented to consider matters concerning the implementation of this Treaty. The Council shall be so organised as to be able to meet promptly at any time. The Council shall set up such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary; in particular it shall establish immediately a defence committee which shall recommend measures for the implementation of Articles 3 and 5.
The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any
This Treaty shall be ratified and its provisions
carried out by the Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional
processes. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited as soon as
possible with the Government of the
After the Treaty has been in force for ten years, or
at any time 3 The Treaty came into force on
After the Treaty has been in force for twenty years,
any Party may cease to be a Party one year after its notice of denunciation has
been given to the Government of the
This Treaty, of which the English and French texts are equally
authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the
4. Memorize the phrases below, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents.
1) determined to continue negotiations, 2) expressing their firm resolve to contribute to, 3) firmly believing that; 4) guided by the interests of consolidating peace, 5) proceeding from the close relations of all-round cooperation existing between them, 6) recalling the Declaration of the UN Conference, 7) striving to continue the development of, 8) wishing to contribute to the cause of halting the arms race, 9) have resolved to conclude this Treaty, 10) and have agreed as follows.
4. Study the use of italicized words in different phrases, suggest their Ukrainianequivalents.
a basic ~; a binding ~, a boundary ~, a collective ~; a commercial ~, a demarcation ~; the INF ~ (T. between Ukraine and the USA on the Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Missiles); an (in) equitable ~; an international ~; a non-aggression ~, a non-proliferation ~; an open ~, a peace ~; a restricted ~; Strategic Offensive Arms Limitation Т.; a trade ~, a universal ~; a ~ of alliance; a ~ of cession; a ~ of commerce and navigation; a ~ of friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance; a ~ of guarantee, a ~ of mutual security, a ~ of neutrality; a ~ of unlimited duration, breach of an international ~; the coming of a ~ into force, denunciation of a ~, prolongation of a ~; renunciation of a ~, the substantive articles of a ~; to accede to a ~; to adhere to a ~; to conclude a ~; to denounce a ~; to enter into a ~, to extend the validity of a ~; to initial a ~; to observe a ~, to prolong the validity of a ~, to ratify a ~, to register a ~, to render a ~ invalid, to renounce a ~; to sign a ~, to violate a ~, to withdraw from a ~.
arms-control ~; bilateral ~; cease-fire ~; diplomatic ~; fruitful ~; multilateral ~; peace ~, separate ~; stage by stage ~, top level ~, trade ~; ~ on medium range nuclear force; ~ on a wide range of issues, a new round of ~; a breakdown in the ~, completion of ~, an outcome of ~, postponement of ~: progress of ~; results of ~; by means of ~; in the course of ~; through ~, within the framework of ~, to begin ~, to break off ~; to carry on ~, to complete ~; to conduct ~; to continue ~; to delay ~, to discontinue ~; to enter into ~, to hold ~; to initiate ~; to resume ~, to suspend ~, to torpedo ~, to wreck ~.
to ~ a loan; to ~ a sale, to ~ a treaty, to ~ terms of peace; to ~ for cease-fire, to ~ for peace, to ~ for truce, to ~ from a position of strength.
6. Suggest the English for:
1) безстроковий договір; 2) договір про взаємну безпеку; 3) договір про непоширення ядерної зброї; 4) договір про встановлення кордонів; 5) вступ договору у силу; 6) нерівноправний договір; 7) порушити договір 8) парафувати договір; 9) притримуватися договору; 10) продовжити дію договору.
7. Memorize the archaic words below pertaining to the formal style. Translate into Ukrainian using the following definitions:
hereafter: after this; following this, from now on, in the future; hereat: at this time, as a result of this,
hereby: by or through this; by this means;
herein: in or into this place; in this matter, writing;
hereinafter: below (in this document, speech, etc.);
hereinbefore: in a preceding part (of this document, speech, etc),
hereinto: into this place, Into this matter, condition;
hereof: of this; from this; concerning this;
hereto: to this matter, hereupon: after this, immediately following this; in consequence of this;
herewith: along with this, by this method or means.
8. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the words in bold type.
1. Subject to the provisions in the instruments relating to the meetings specified hereunder the Director-General shall take all necessary steps for the application of the present Regulations 2. The States Parties to the present Covenant have submitted the reports on the progress made in achieving the observance of the rights recognized herein. 3. There shall be established a Human Rights Committee (hereafter referred to in the present Covenant as the Committee). 4. It shall consist of eighteen members and shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided. 5. The General Conference invites the Director-General to take into account considerations annexed hereto. 6 For the financial, period 1981—1983 the amount of $ 625,374,000 is hereby appropriated for the purposes indicated in the appropriation table. 7. The International Maritime Satellite Organization herein referred to as "the Organization", is hereby established.
9. Translate into English taking note of the words and phrases in bold type.
1. У відповідності з основними зобов'язаннями, що викладені у статті 2 нинішньої Конвенції, держави-учасники зобов'язуються не допускати расової дискримінації у всіх її правах. 2. Генеральний секретар Організації Об'єднаних Націй згідно із статтею 48 повідомляє представників держав-членів ООН про всі поточні зміни у роботі Організації. 3. Задля виконання своїх зобов'язань, що випливають із Статуту ООН і стосуються прав людини та основних свобод, Економічна та Соціальна Рада може вступати у згоду зі спеціалізованими установами, діяльність яких направлена на реалізацію цих прав та свобод. 4. У відповідності з рекомендаціями наради експертів були суттєво підсилені програми у галузі енергетики. 5. Задля виконання резолюції 9.1. секретаріат сприяв підготовці доповідей з обговорюваного питання.
10. Translate into Ukrainian:
International courtesy has established a custom called "rotation in precedence" (1'alternat) which confers on each state the right to occupy, in rotation, the place of honour in signing international acts in which it participates. This means that, when the final documents are drawn up, the first place in the list of the participating powers is given successively to each of the signatory states. Its plenipotentiary moves to the head of the list and signs at the place of honour, that is to say, at the left if the names of the signatories are placed side by side, or at the top if they are disposed vertically. Each state receives the signed original of the convention where its name appears first. This procedure is not normally followed in the signature of multilateral acts, because it is now customary to sign only one original of such documents.
The other plenipotentiaries then sign In the order previously agreed upon. This manner of presentation must be exactly respected in the instruments of ratification, in the official reports of the exchange of instruments of ratification and at the time of the official publication of the texts.
It should be noted that, according to the language-employed for the drafting of a convention, the alphabetic order of the states can vary appreciably.
11. Translate the final clauses of a convention into Ukrainian paying attention to the words and phrases in bold type.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention.
DONE AT London this third day of September one thousand nine hundred and seventy-six in the English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, all the texts being equally authentic, in a single original which shall be deposited with the Depositary, who shall send a certified copy to the Government of each of the States which were invited to attend the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System and to the Government of any other State which signs or accedes to this Convention.
12. Translate into English:
Нинішня Конвенція підлягає реєстрації Генеральним секретарем Організації Об'єднаних Націй у день вступу її у силу.
У ПІДТВЕРДЖЕННЯ ЧОГО нижчепідписані повноправні представники підписали нинішню Конвенцію.
ЗДІЙСНЕНО у Нью-Йорку серпня тридцятого дня, тисяча дев'ятсот вісімдесят п'ятого року у одному примірнику, англійський, китайський, російський, іспанський та французький тексти якого є рівно автентичними; цей примірник депонується у архіві Організації Об'єднаних Націй, і завірені копії його супроводжуються Генеральним секретарем Організації Об'єднаних Націй усім членам Організації Об'єднаних Націй і державам, що не є її членами, згаданим у статті 16 нинішньої Конвенції.