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SECTION 3 INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION

1. Give an oral summary of the following text:

Structure of the ILO

The ILO accomplishes its work through three main bodies, all of which encompass the unique feature of the Organization: its tripartite structure (government, employers, workers).

1. International Labour Conference: The member States of the ILO meet at the International Labour Conference in June of each year, in Geneva. Each member State is represented by two government delegates, an employer delegate and a worker delegate. They are accompanied by technical advisors. It is generally the Cabinet Ministers responsible for labour affairs in their own countries who head the delegations, take the floor and present their governments' points of view.

Employer and worker delegates can express themselves and vote according to instructions received from their organizations. They sometimes vote against each other or even against their government representatives.

The Conference plays a very important role. It establishes and adopts international labour standards. It acts as a forum where social and labour questions of importance to the entire world are discussed. The Conference also adopts the budget of the Organization and elects the Governing Body.

2. The Governing Body is the executive council of the ILO and meets three times a year in Geneva. It takes decisions on ILO's policy. It establishes the programme and the budget which it then submits to the Conference for adoption. It also elects the Director-General.

It is composed of 28 government members, 14 employer members and 14 worker members. Ten of the government seats are

permanently held by States of chief industrial importance. Representatives of other member countries are elected at the Conference every three years, taking into account geographical distribution. The employers and workers elect their own representatives respectively.

3. The International Labour Office is the permanent secretariat of the International Labour Organization and focal point for the overall activities that it prepares under the scrutiny of the Governing Body and under the leadership of a Director-General, who is elected for a five-year renewable term. The Office employs some 1,900 officials of over 110 nationalities at the Geneva headquarters and in 40 field offices around the world. In addition, some 600 experts undertake missions in all regions of the world under the programme of technical cooperation. The Office also constitutes a research and documentation centre and a printing house issuing a broad range of specialized studies, reports and periodicals.

 

2.Precis the following:

ILO Declaration on fundamental principles and rights at work

Whereas the ILO was founded in the conviction that social justice is essential to universal and lasting peace;

Whereas economic growth is essential but not sufficient to ensure equity, social progress and the eradication of poverty, confirming the need for the ILO to promote strong social policies, justice and democratic institutions;

Whereas the ILO should, now more than ever, draw upon all its standard-setting, technical cooperation and research resources in all its areas of competence, in particular employment, vocational training and working conditions, to ensure that, in the context of a global strategy for economic and social development, economic and social policies are mutually reinforcing components in order to create broad-based sustainable development;

Whereas the ILO should give special attention to the problems of persons with special social needs, particularly the unemployed and migrant workers, and mobilize and encourage international, regional and national efforts aimed at resolving their problems, and promote effective policies aimed at job creation;

Whereas, in seeking to maintain the link between social progress and economic growth, the guarantee of fundamental principles and rights at work is of particular significance in that it enables the persons concerned to claim freely and on the basis of equality of opportunity their fair share of the wealth which they have helped to generate, and to achieve fully their human potential;

Whereas the ILO is the constitutionally mandated international organization and the competent body to set and deal with international labour standards, and enjoys universal support and acknowledgement in promoting fundamental rights at work as the expression of its constitutional principles;

Whereas it is urgent, in a situation of growing economic interdependence, to reaffirm the immutable nature of the fundamental principles and rights embodied in the Constitution of the Organization and to promote their universal application;

The International Labour Conference,

1. Recalls:

(a) that in freely joining the ILO, all Members have endorsed the principles and rights set out in its Constitution and in the Declaration of Philadelphia, and have undertaken to work towards attaining the overall objectives of the Organization to the best of their resources and fully in line with their specific circumstances;

(b) that these principles and rights have been expressed and developed in the form of specific rights and obligations in Conventions recognized as fundamental both inside and outside the Organization.

2. Declares that all Members, even if they have not ratified the Conventions in question, have an obligation arising from the very fact of membership in the Organization, to respect, to promote and to realize, in good faith and in accordance with the Constitution, the principles concerning the fundamental rights which are the subject of those Conventions, namely:

(a) freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining;

(b) the elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour;

(c) the effective abolition of child labour; and

(d) the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

3. Recognizes the obligation on the Organization to assist its Members, in response to their established and expressed needs, in order to attain these objectives by making full use of its constitutional, operational and budgetary resources, including by the mobilization of external resources and support, as well as by encouraging other international organizations with which the ILO has established relations, pursuant to article 12 of its Constitution, to support these efforts:

(a) by offering technical cooperation and advisory services to promote the ratification and implementation of the fundamental Conventions;

(b) by assisting those Members not yet in a position to ratify some or all of these Conventions in their efforts to respect, to promote and to realize the principles concerning fundamental rights which are the subject of those Conventions; and (c) by helping the Members in their efforts to create a climate for economic and social development.

4. Decides that, to give full effect to this Declaration, a promotional follow-up, which is meaningful and effective, shall be implemented in accordance with the measures specified in the annex hereto, which shall be considered as an integral part of this Declaration.

5. Stresses that labour standards should not be used for protectionist trade purposes, and that nothing in this Declaration and its follow-up shall be invoked or otherwise used for such purposes; in addition, the comparative advantage of any country should in no way be called into question by this Declaration and its follow-up.

PART 2

 

ENGLISH IDIOMS

 

SECTION 1 COLOUR IDIOMS

1. Study These Idioms and their Meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

black and white - thinking of everything or judging everything as either good

or bad

black out - darken by putting out or dimming electric lights

black out - prevent or silence information or communication

black out - lose consciousness

blue in the face - very angry or upset, excited and very emotional

brown bag it - take a lunch to work

catch (someone) red-handed - catch someone in the middle of doing

something wrong

give someone the green light - give permission to go ahead with a project

grass is always greener on the other side - a place that is far away or different

seems better than where we are now

green - inexperienced, immature

 

1.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. He is rather green and doesn`t have enough experience to drive the large piece of machinery yet. 2. He realized that the grass is always greener on the other side when he saw that his new job wasn`t perfect and had its own problems too. 3. We were finally given the green light to begin setting up the new project. 4. The woman was caught red-handed at the store trying to steal some cosmetics. 5. I have had to brown bag it every day this week as the company cafeteria is closed for repair work. 6. He argued with her until he was blue in the face. 7. Suddenly the man blacked out during the parade and had to be helped to a quiet place. 8. The government decided to black out all of the information related to the political prisoner. 9. During the war people in the cities were forced to black out their windows so that the enemy aircraft could not see them. 10. He tries to see everything in black and white although he knows this is impossible.

 

1.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (1); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (1); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (1); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (1); Student H translates them into English.

 

2. Study These Idioms and their Meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

green thumb - a talent for gardening, ability to make things grow

green with envy - very jealous, full of envy

horse of a different color - something totally separate and different

in the black - successful or profitable

in the red - lose money, unprofitable

look at (see) the world through rose-colored glasses - see only the good

things about something, be too optimistic

off-color - in bad taste, rude, dirty

once in a blue moon - rarely

out of the blue - without any warning, by surprise

paint the town red - go out and party and have a good time

 

2.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. She has a green thumb and is able to grow one of the best gardens in our neighborhood. 2. I don`t understand what is the matter. Right out of the blue he decided to quit his job and go and live in Europe. 3. We go out for Italian food once in a blue moon although we enjoy it very much. 4. When my cousin came to visit us we decided to go out and paint the town red. 5. He told an off-color joke at the party that made his wife very angry. 6. He always looks at the world through rose-colored glasses and is never able to understand that some people are dishonest. 7. The company has been in the red for three years now - ever since their exports to Asia decreased by 35 per cent. 8. The company has been in the black since they began to adopt many new ideas to cut costs. 9. I was green with envy when I heard that she would be going to London for a week while I had to stay and work. 10. I know that he would like to discuss that issue now but it is a horse of a different color and we should discuss it at another time.

 

2.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (2); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (2); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (2); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (2); Student H translates them into English.

 

3. Study These Idioms and their Meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

pink slip - termination notice from a job

pot calling the kettle black - the person who is criticizing someone else is as

guilty as the person he accuses

red herring - something that draws attention away from the matter under

consideration

red-letter day - a day that is memorable because of some important event

red tape - excessive formalities in official business

roll out the red carpet - greet a person with great respect, give a big welcome

see red - become very angry

show one`s true colors - show what one is really like

tickled pink - be very pleased, thrill, delight

white elephant - a useless possession

white lie - a harmless lie (told to be polite or to do something not seriously

wrong)

white sale - the selling at a reduced price of towels or sheets etc.

with flying colors - with great or total success

yellow-bellied - extremely timid, cowardly

yellow streak - cowardice in one`s character

 

3.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. He has a yellow streak running down his back and is not a good person to expect to support you when things become difficult. 2. He is a yellow-bellied coward and never is willing to fight for what is right. 3. We went to the white sale at the department store in order to buy some new sheets before my parents come to visit. 4. She passed her course with flying colors and now wants to go out and celebrate. 5. I told my boss a white lie and said that I was sick yesterday when actually I wasn`t. 6. The new stereo that he bought is a white elephant and he doesn`t need it at all. 7. She was tickled pink that you made the effort to go and visit her when you were in town. 8. I know that she doesn`t like me but she was showing her true colors when she began yelling at me on the telephone. 9. I received my pink slip last week and am now looking for a new job. 10. She was criticizing me for not looking for a new job but that is like the pot calling the kettle black. She isn`t looking for a new job either. 11. Talking about the union`s last strike is a red herring and doesn`t do anything to deal with the problems that we are facing today. 12. Many businesses have been complaining about the amount of red tape that they must deal with in order to get anything done with the government. 13. It was a red-letter day when she finally received her graduation diploma. 14. When the King of Jordon visited Washington, they rolled out the red carpet and gave him a great welcome. 15. He really saw red last night when I told him that I wouldn`t be coming to work today.

 

3.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (3); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (3); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (3); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (3); Student H translates them into English.

 

Check your knowledge of colour idioms

Choose an idiom at the bottom to replace the expression in the brackets below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

 

Variant 1

1. She was (very pleased) that she was chosen to represent her class at the convention..

(a) blacked out (b) tickled pink (c) green with envy (d) out of the blue

2. He is not very flexible and always sees everything (as either good or bad).

(a) in the red (b) off-color (c) with flying colors (d) in black and white

3. The federal government finally gave the city (permission) to go ahead and build the new airport.

(a) the green light (b) a horse of a different color (c) once in a blue moon (d) red tape

4. Our company has been (losing money) for over three years now.

(a) rolling out the red carpet (b) yellow-bellied (c) in the red (d) green

5. It was a (memorable) day when the first person was sent to space in a rocket.

(a) yellow-streak (b) white-elephant (c) red-herring (d) red-letter

 

Variant 2

1. My brother passed the test to become a police officer (easily and with great success) so we were all very happy.

(a) green (b) with flying colors (c) out of the blue (d) tickled pink

2. They came and told us (suddenly and without any warning) that our factory would be closing next month.

(a) out of the blue (b) once in a blue moon (c) with flying colors (d) painting the town red

3. Her mother (was very angry) when she came home last night at 3 o`clock in the morning.

(a) rolled out the red carpet (b) saw red (c) showed her true colors (d) looked at the world through rose-colored glasses

4. He argued with his wife until he was (very angry) but still she wouldn`t agree with him.

(a) brown bagging it (b) in the black (c) blue in the face (d) a pot calling the kettle black

5. I go to the swimming pool only (rarely) although I love to swim.

(a) catching someone red-handed (b) with flying colors (c) in the red (d) once in a blue moon

 

SECTION 2 BUSINESS IDIOMS

1. Study these idioms and their meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

across the board - including everyone or everything

at a loss - sell something and lose money

bail a company out - help or rescue a company with financial problems

ball park figure/estimate - a rough estimate or figure

bang for the buck - value for the money spent

banker's hours - short work hours

bean-counter - accountant

big gun/cheese/wheel/wig - an important person, a leader

bottom fall out/drop out - to fall below an earlier lowest price

bottom line - the total, the final figure on a balance sheet

 

1.2 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. The computer company decided to give the workers an across-the-board increase in their salary. 2. We were forced to sell the computers at a big loss. 3. The government decided to bail out the failing bank in order to maintain stability in the economy. 4. The contractor gave us a ball park figure for the cost of repairing the new building. 5. We were able to get a big bang for our buck when we advertised on the Internet. 6. My sister's husband owns his own company and is able to work banker's hours with his large staff. 7. We asked the bean-counters to look over the figures in the new budget. 8. The new director was a big wheel in his previous company but is not so important now. 9. When the bottom fell out of the coffee market many companies had to stop doing business. 10. When they examined the bottom line of the company they decided not to invest in it.

 

1.3 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (1); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (1); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (1); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (1); Student H translates them into English.

 

2. Study these idioms and their meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

bottom out - reach the lowest or worst point of something

boys in the backroom - a group of men making decisions behind the scenes

break even - have expenses equal to profits

budget squeeze/crunch - a situation where there is not enough money in the

budget

buy off - use a gift or money to divert someone from their duty or purpose

buy out - buy the ownership or a decisive share of something

by a long shot - by a big difference, by far

calculated risk - an action that may fail but has a good chance to succeed

captain of industry - a top corporation officer

carry over - save for another time

 

2.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. The value of the stock has begun to bottom out and should soon begin to increase in value. 2. The boys in the backroom told us that we must close down the factory as soon as possible. 3. After only three months the company was able to break even and start making profits. 4. We have been going through a severe budget squeeze at our company and must begin to stop spending money in a wasteful manner. 5. The land developer tried to buy off the politician but he was not successful. 6. The company was bought out by another large company in the textile industry. 7. The soap company was able to beat out the bids of the other companies by a long shot. 8. They took a calculated risk when they introduced the new computer screen onto the market. 9. The president of our company was a captain of industry and after he retired he was appointed to many government boards. 10. We were forced to carry over the sale to the Monday after the national holiday.

 

2.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (2); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (2); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (2); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (2); Student H translates them into English.

 

3. Study these idioms and their meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

carry over - transfer (a figure) from one column or book to another

carry the day - win completely

carry through - put into action

close out - sell the whole of something, sell all the goods

close the books - stop taking orders, end a bookkeeping period

cold call - call a potential customer from a list of persons one has never seen

come on strong - overwhelm with excessively strong language or personality

company man - a person who always works hard and agrees with his

employees

company town - a town dominated by one industry or company

cut back - use fewer or use less

3.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. Our company is still facing difficult times and we will have to carry over last year's losses to this year. 2. The president's new idea carried the day and everyone supported him energetically. 3. The steel company carried through their plan to restructure all of their operations. 4. They decided to close out the store and sell all of the remaining stock very cheap. 5. They usually close the books at the end of February every year. 6. When he first started to work at his company he was asked to make cold calls using the telephone book. 7. The salesman came on too strong at the meeting and angered the other members of the team. 8. My father was a true company man and was always putting in an extra effort for his company. 9. When the coal mine closed down the company town faced severe economic times. 10. The company has been cutting back on entertainment expenses for over a year now.

 

3.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (3); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (3); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (3); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (3); Student H translates them into English.

 

4. Study these idioms and their meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

cut corners - economize

cut off - interrupt or stop

cut one's losses - do something to stop losing money or something

deliver the goods - succeed in doing well what is expected

double-check - check something again to confirm

face value - the official worth or trust of something

fair play - justice, equal and right action to someone

figure out - find an answer by thinking about something

fill the bill - be just what is needed

finger in the pie - involved in what is happening, receiving money for

something

 

4.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. We have been forced to economize on stationary expenses during these severe economic times. 2. The speech of the president was cut off when the electricity went off in the building. 3. We should sell the old machinery as soon as possible and try and cut our losses. 4. The new owner of the company is not very popular but he is able to deliver the goods. 5. We were unable to double-check the costs of the new products before the price list was printed. 6. Although the face value of the postage stamp was very low it sold at the auction for much money. 7. The company is very good to work for as they always use fair play when they are bargaining with their employees. 8. Everyone in our company is trying to figure out what our boss is going to do with the new equipment. 9. That new machine should fill the bill as to what we need to finish the job. 10. The new manager has his finger in the pie in all aspects of our company's business.

 

4.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (4); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (4); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (4); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (4); Student H translates them into English.

 

5. Study these idioms and their meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

gain ground - go forward, make progress

get a break - get an opportunity or good deal

get off the ground - make a successful beginning, go ahead

give someone the green light - give permission to go ahead with a project

go public - sell shares of a privately owned company to the public

go through with - finish, do as planned or agreed

hard sell - sell something by being very aggressive

heads will roll - someone will be punished

in black and white - in writing

in charge of - in control of, responsible for

 

5.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. Our company has been gaining ground in our attempt to be the best in the industry. 2. We were able to get a break on the price of the paint and saved a lot of money. 3. We were unable to get the new product off the ground and will have to wait until next year. 4. Our boss gave us the green light to begin work on the new sales promotion. 5. The stock of the Internet company rose very quickly when they went public. 6. We have decided not to go through with our plans to launch the new product until we have solved all of its problems. 7. The car salesman gave us a hard sell so we decided to go to another dealer. 8. Heads will roll when our boss learns about the money that we have lost recently. 9. The company refused to deal with the customer's complaints until they saw them in black and white. 10. My sister has been in charge of buying supplies at her company for many years.

 

5.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (5); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (5); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (5); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (5); Student H translates them into English.

 

6. Study these idioms and their meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

in short supply - not enough, in less than the amount or number needed

in stock - have something ready to sell or use

in the black - successful or making money

in the long run - in the final result

in the market for - ready to buy something

in the red - losing money, unprofitable

in the works - in preparation, being planned or worked on

jack up - make a price higher

keep books - keep records of money gained and spent

keep track of - keep a count or record, stay informed

 

6.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. Experienced computer programmers are in short supply at our company. 2. They didn't have any computer printer ribbons in stock at the store. 3. The new company has been in the black for over a year now. 4. The company has been losing money recently but in the long run they should do very well. 5. We have been in the market for a new computer for a long time but still we haven't bought one. 6. The company began to go into the red when the price of oil began to rise rapidly. 7. The camera company has a new automatic camera in the works but nobody knows about it yet. 8. The steel companies decided to jack up the price of steel at the beginning of the year. 9. The new assistant to the sales manager has no experience keeping books and has made many mistakes. 10. They have been making a great effort to keep track of the number of visitors to their store.

6.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (6); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (6); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (6); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (6); Student H translates them into English.

 

7. Study these idioms and their meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

kickback - money paid illegally for favorable treatment

make a go of - produce good results, succeed

mean business - be serious

number-cruncher - an accountant, someone who works with numbers

on hand - in one's possession, ready

(buy) on credit - buy something without paying cash

on the block - for sale

pay off - make a profit, be successful

piece/slice of the action - a share in the activity or the profits of something

red ink - debt (red ink on a financial statement)

 

7.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. The construction company was taken to court for giving kickbacks to the local politicians. 2. Although he works very hard in his small business he has been unable to make a go of it and may soon go out of business. 3. Our boss means business when he tells everyone to try and work harder. 4. Our president is a good number-cruncher and understands about the finances of our company. 5. We didn't have any supplies on hand and were unable to finish the job. 6. My friend had no money so he decided to but the furniture on credit. 7. As soon as they purchased the company they began to put some of the equipment on the block. 8. The furniture manufacturer was unable to pay off their loan and had to go out of business. 9. The inventor wanted a large piece of the action of the profits from the new computer that he had invented. 10. The automobile company has been drowning in red ink since the US dollar began to rise.

 

7.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (7); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (7); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (7); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

a)    Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (7); Student H translates them into English.

 

8. Study these idioms and their meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

run short - not have enough in quantity

saddled with debt - burdened with debt

sell like hotcakes - sell very quickly

sell out - sell all of a product

strike while the iron is hot - take advantage of an opportunity

sweetheart deal - a deal made between friends so that both may make a big

profit

take a nosedive - collapse, fail, decrease in value

take on - to give a job to or hire someone

take over - take control or possession of something, take charge or

responsibility

take public - sell shares in a company to the general public

take stock - count the items of merchandise or supplies in stock, take

inventory

throw cold water on - discourage, forbid

throw money at something - try to solve a problem by spending money on it

tight spot - a difficult situation

turn over - to buy and then sell something to customers

work out - plan, develop

write off - remove from a business record, cancel a debt

 

8.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. They ran short of gasoline at the gas station and had to close early. 2. Our sister company is saddled with a great amount of debt and should be sold as soon as possible. 3. The children's toys were selling like hotcakes at the end of the year. 4. Every year at least one company sells out all of their products which frustrates many customers. 5. We decided to strike while the iron was hot and began to market the product around the time of the Olympics. 6. We were able to make a sweetheart deal with our landlord and got the rent greatly reduced. 7. The stock market took a nosedive when the earnings of the oil company began to weaken. 8. The company took on many new workers during the busy holiday season. 9. The government decided to take over the bank after it declared bankruptcy. 10. We decided it was necessary to take our company public in order to raise money to expand our facilities. 11. The department store closes down for 3 days every March in order to take stock. 12. The managers threw cold water on the plans to close down the factory for one week in August. 13. The president of our company is willing to throw a lot of money at the problem in the hope of solving it. 14. The computer manufacturing company has been in a tight spot since the shortage of computer chips appeared. 15. The turn-over at that discount store is very rapid. 16. I spent the weekend trying to work out the budget estimates for next year. 17. It was impossible for the bank to collect the money so they were forced to write off the loan.

 

8.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (8); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (8); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (8); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (8); Student H translates them into English.

 

Check your knowledge of business idioms

Choose an idiom at the bottom to replace the expression in the brackets below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

 

Variant 1

1. After the fire the company was forced to sell most of their merchandise (and lost much money).

(a) by a long shot (b) at a loss (c) in black and white (d) in the long run

2. The price of oil (reached its lowest point) in July and began to rise soon after.

(a) cut corners (b) closed out (c) broke even (d) bottomed out

3. The computer company had much trouble having the new operating system (make a successful start).

(a) in the red (b) get off the ground (c) mean business (d) strike while the iron was hot

4. The price of computer chips (collapsed) after the sales of personal computers began to decrease.

(a) took a nosedive (b) turned over (c) bottomed out (d) carried the day

5. The automobile dealer had no trucks (available to sell) so we had to wait for two months to buy one.

(a) in the works (b) on credit (c) in stock (d) written off

6. The large drug company (took control of) the small drugstore chain.

(a) took over (b) took stock of (c) turned over (d) sold out

7. There was a chance to make much money during the summer so we decided to (take advantage of the opportunity) and work hard.

(a) throw money at it (b) strike while the iron was hot (c) sell like hotcakes (d) mean business

8. Our plans for marketing the new computer product are still (in preparation).

(a) coming on strong (b) in short supply (c) going public (d) in the works

9. The insurance company (cancelled) the debts from the flood damage.

(a) wrote off (b) worked out (c) took over (d) paid off

10. The construction company (hired) hundreds of new workers last week.

(a) took over (b) turned over (c) took on (d) make a go over

 

Variant 2

1. Our company needed to raise money to expand so we decided to (sell its shares) on the stock market.

(a) take a nosedive (b) sell it out (c) take it over (d) take it public

2. The steel company finally went bankrupt after being (burdened with losses) for many years.

(a) jacked up (b) on the block (c) saddled with debt (d) paid off

3. We are (ready to buy) a new car but we haven't found anything that we like.

(a) in the works (b) in the market for (c) in charge of (d) cutting back

4. The salesman sold the house by (being very aggressive) which made us a little angry.

(a) a hard sell (b) keeping books (c) a kickback (d) a company man

5. We tried to decide on a (rough estimate) for the cost of new computer printers for the company.

(a) budget crunch (b) number-cruncher (c) ball park figure (d) sweetheart deal

6. We decided to sell the business in order to (stop losing money).

(a) bottom out (b) mean business (c) cut our losses (d) strike while the iron was hot

7. (Someone will be punished) if we don't quickly deal with the poor sales of our product.

(a) Someone will fill the bill (b) Someone will get a break (c) Someone will deliver the goods (d) Heads will roll

8. Gas and oil was (in less than the amount needed) during the busy summer season.

(a) in short supply (b) in stock (c) in the works (d) filling the bill

9. The (amount of sales) of computers increased by 25 per cent last year.

(a) write-off (b) turn-over (c) calculated risk (d) double-check

10. We closed the store early in order to (count the number of items we had).

(a) take stock (b) run short (c) buy out (d) gain ground

 



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