SECTION 2 INTERPOL

1. Give an oral summary of the following text.

The fundamental principles of Interpol

The purpose of the Organization

Under Article 2 of the Organization's Constitution, Interpol aims: To ensure and promote the widest possible mutual assistance between all criminal police authorities, within the limits of the laws existing in the different countries and in the spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. To establish and develop all institutions likely to contribute effectively to the prevention and suppression of ordinary law(1) crimes.

The limits of its actions are laid down in Article 3:

It is strictly forbidden for the Organization to undertake any intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character. According to the interpretation given to Article 3, a political offence is one which is considered to be of a predominantly political nature because of the surrounding circumstances and underlying motives, even if the offence itself is covered by the ordinary criminal law in the country in which it was committed. This interpretation, based on the predominant aspects of the offence, was first mentioned in a resolution adopted by the Interpol General Assembly in 1951. A resolution adopted in 1984 states that, in general, offences are not considered to be political when they are committed outside a 'conflict area', and when the victims are not connected with the aims or objectives pursued by the offenders.

Members - Applying for membership

Article 4 states that: Any country may delegate as a Member to the Organization any official police body whose functions come within the framework of activities of the Organization. The request for membership shall be submitted to the Secretary General by the appropriate governmental authority. Membership shall be subject to approval by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly.

 

2. Translate the following text into Ukrainian.

Interpol's Principles of co-operation

International police co-operation within Interpol has always been conducted in accordance with the following guiding principles:

Respect for national sovereignty. Co-operation is based on actions taken by the police forces in the various Member States, operating within their own national boundaries and in accordance with their own national laws.

Enforcement of ordinary criminal law (Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution). The Organization's field of activity is limited to crime prevention and law enforcement in connection with ordinary criminal offences. This is the only basis on which there can be agreement between all Member States.

Universality. Any Member State may co-operate with any other and co-operation must not be impeded by geographic or linguistic factors.

Equality of all Member States. All Member States are provided with the same services and have the same rights, irrespective of the size of their financial contribution to the Organization.

Co-operation with other agencies. Co-operation is extended, through the National Central Bureaus, to any government agency concerned with combating ordinary criminal offences.

Flexibility of working methods. Although governed by principles designed to ensure regularity and continuity, working methods are flexible enough to take account of the wide variety of structures and situations in different countries.

Respect for these principles means that Interpol cannot have teams of detectives with supranational powers who travel around investigating cases in different countries. International police co-operation depends on co-ordinated action on the part of the Member States' law enforcement agencies, all of which may supply or request information or services on different occasions.

 

3. Read the following text to speak on the administration and structure of Interpol.

Administration and structure of Interpol

Interpol has two inter-related governing bodies: the General Assembly and the Executive Committee. These are deliberative organs, with decision-making and supervisory powers, which meet periodically. The Organization's permanent departments constitute the General Secretariat which is responsible for implementing the decisions and recommendations adopted by the two deliberative organs and whose close contacts with the Interpol National Central Bureaus (NCBs) in the various Member States provide the framework for day-to-day international police co-operation. The NCBs, which are national bodies, are responsible for liaison between the Member States and with the General Secretariat.

The General Assembly

This is composed of delegates appointed by the governments of Member States. As Interpol's supreme governing body, it meets once a year and takes all the major decisions affecting general policy, the resources needed for international co-operation, working methods, finances and programmes of activities. It also elects the Organization's officers. Generally speaking, the Assembly takes decisions by a simple majority in the form of resolutions. Each Member State represented has one vote.

The Executive Committee

Thirteen members are elected by the General Assembly from among the Member States' delegates. They are elected on the basis of equitable geographic distribution and must be from different countries. The President is elected for a four-year term of office. He chairs General Assembly sessions and Executive Committee meetings, makes certain that decisions taken by the Organization's governing bodies are implemented, and maintains close contact with the Secretary General.Three Vice-Presidents and nine ordinary members are all elected for three-year terms of office.The Executive Committee usually meets three times a year. It ensures that General Assembly decisions are implemented, prepares the agenda for the General Assembly sessions, approves the programme of activities and draft budget before they are submitted to the Assembly, and supervises the management of the General Secretariat.

General Secretariat

This is the permanent administrative and technical body through which Interpol operates. It implements the decisions taken by the General Assembly and the Executive Committee, directs and co-ordinates action designed to combat international crime, centralizes information on crime and criminals, and maintains contact with national and international authorities. The General Secretariat comprises the Secretary General and the technical and administrative personnel needed to carry out the Organization's work. It is administered by the Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly for a five-year term of office. He is answerable to the General Assembly and the Executive Committee for the Organization's general and financial management. General Secretariat staff are international officials and, as such, must act solely in the interests of the Organization. The General Secretariat comprises an Executive Office and five Directorates, each responsible for specific tasks. The Executive Office and the Financial Controller answer directly to the Secretary General.

The Executive Office

This technical and administrative directorate, which supports the Secretary General in his work, comprises an Executive Office and secretariat; the Communication and Public Relations Sub-Directorate (see section on External Relations); and the Technical Adviser's Office, which has specific responsibility for the interface between the

Secretary General and the Executive Committee, the co-ordination of the activities of the Executive Committee, preparation of specialized studies and the implementation of the strategic development plan.

 

4. Translate the text into Ukrainian.

Interpol's Relations with International Organizations

United Nations: Interpol has always worked closely with the United Nations on international economic and social matters, particularly with the Centre for Human Rights and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Branch. This collaboration, which has developed steadily over the years, was formally recognized in 1971 with the signature of a "Special Arrangement" between the United Nations Economic and Social Council and Interpol. In 1996, Interpol was granted the status of Observer at the UN General Assembly.

Another United Nations body - the UN International Drug Control Program - shares information with the General Secretariat's Drugs Sub-Directorate and participates in its training and co-operation programmes.

United Nations specialized agencies and related institutions

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) - on air transport security and on preventing and combating unlawful interference with international civil aviation.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - on matters connected with the Interpol telecommunications network.

UNESCO - on the protection of national artistic and cultural property and the prevention of thefts of works of art.

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) - in connection with offences against intellectual property and copyright rules.

World Health Organization (WHO) - on matters relating to the abuse of psychotropic substances.

Other intergovernmental organizations

Interpol has major links with the following organizations:

World Customs Organization (WCO): Interpol maintains close contact with WCO in order to ensure that police and customs officers can work together in spheres where co-operation is essential, particularly in activities to combat illicit drug traffic. A Memorandum of Understanding between the two organizations was

signed at Interpol Headquarters in Lyons, France, on November 9th 1998.

Council of Europe: An agreement was signed by the two organizations in 1959: since then Interpol has co-operated on crime problems and on the preparation of European conventions aimed at combating crime. Many of the European conventions concluded under the auspices of the Council of Europe contain provisions stating that parties in Member States may use Interpol channels to forward judicial documents.

Secretariat for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES): Since many of Interpol's Member States are trying to protect their fauna and flora, the General Secretariat collaborates with CITES to combat traffic in endangered species. A Memorandum of Understanding between the two organizations was signed on October 15th 1998.

 

SECTION 3 STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

1. Read and translate the text into your Ukrainian.

One of the main purposes of the United Nations is "to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace." It was with this aim in view that the Charter of the United Nations created the International Court of Justice as one of the main organs of the United Nations (Articles 1 and 7).

The importance of the place occupied by the Court in the United Nations is emphasized by other provisions of the Charter: the Court is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (Article 92); further, the Security Council, when called upon to make recommendations in a dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, should take into consideration that legal disputes should as a general rule be referred by the parties to the International Court of Justice (Article 36).

The idea of entrusting the settlement of international disputes to an impartial authority, which would give a decision on the basis of law, is a very old one. Examples are to be found in ancient Greece, but the modern development of international arbitration dates from the Jay Treaty of 1794, between Great Britain and the United States, which provided for the establishment of mixed commissions for the settlement of a number of disputes existing between the two countries.

A further stage in the development of the judicial settlement of international disputes was reached with the First Hague Peace Conference of 1899. The Powers which took part in this Conference signed the Hague Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes and set up the Permanent Court of Arbitration It was maintained by the Second Hague Peace Conference of 1907 and is still in existence.

The creation in 1920 of the Permanent Court of International Justice, for which provision had been made in the Covenant of the League of Nations, marked the greatest advance ,in the field of the judicial settlement of international disputes.

In 1945, a new judicial organ, the International Court of Justice, was brought into being by the Charter of the United Nations. The Statute of the Court is annexed to the Charter, of which it forms an integral part. Except for a few changes, most of which are purely formal, it is similar to the Statute of the Permanent Court of Inter national Justice Furthermore, when the new Court met, it adopted the Rules of Court of its predecessor without any substantial change On 10 May 1972, however, certain amendments were adopted, to take effect the following September, and, on 14 April 1978, the Court adopted a completely revised set of Rules, which came into force on 1 July of that year. The modifications were aimed ill particular at simplifying and accelerating proceedings, to the extent that this depended on the Court, at introducing greater flexibility and at helping parties to keep down costs.

In accordance with Article 38 of its Statute, the International Court of Justice applies (a) international conventions and treaties, (b) international custom, (c) the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations, and (d) judicial decisions and the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists as subsidiary means of the determination of rules of law Furthermore, the Court may decide a case ex aequo et b that is,- according to the principles of equity if the parties agree thereto.

 

A Answer the questions:

1. What was the aim of creating the International Court of Justice' 2. Where should legal disputes be referred to? 3 When does the modern development of international arbitration date from? 4 What was the role of the First Hague Peace Conference of 1899? 5. What marked the greatest advance in the field of the judicial settlement of international disputes? 6 When was a new judicial organ brought into being? 7 When did the International Court of Justice adopt a completely revised set of Rules?

 

B Suggest the Ukrainian for:

1) adjustment or settlement of international disputes; 2) annexed to the Charter; 3) the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations; 4) an impartial authority; 5) a judicial organ; 6) a legal dispute; 7) the principles of equity; 8) a revised set of Rules; 9) to decide a case; 10) to endanger the maintenance of international peace; 11) to keep down costs; 12) to simplify proceedings; 13) to take effect.

 

2. Memorize the phrases below, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents.

1) the fiscal year; 2) the right of membership; 3) the supreme power; 4) to assure the extensive interchange of information; 5) to be best suited to; 6) to be eligible for re election; 7) to benefit by the experience of others; 8) to be terminated by submission of a notice; 9) to contribute effectively to; 10) to delegate one's power to; 11) to pay one's subscriptions; 12) to regulate the activity.

 

3. Study the use of italicized words in different phrases, suggest their Russian equivalents.

LEGAL

~ effect; ~ effects; ~ entity; ~ implications; ~ instrument; ~ force of an agreement; ~ personality; ~ protection; ~ relations; ~ unit; ~ validity; ~ views; international ~ guarantees; international ~ norms.

 

JUDICIAL

~ decision; ~ organ; ~ proceedings; to take (bring) ~ proceedings against smb.

IURIDIC, JURIDICAL

~ person; ~ days.

 

4. Memorize the phrases below, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents.

1) to all and singular to whom these Presents shall come, greeting; 2) in pursuance of the aforesaid advice and consent of the Senate; 3) now, therefore, be it known that; 4) I do hereby declare that; 5) for the greater testimony and validity of all; 6) I have the honour to transmit herewith the Instrument of Ratification; 7) to perform and carry out all the stipulations therein contained.

 

5. Study the use of italicized words In different phrases, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents.

ACCESSION

instruments of ~; ~ to a treaty; ~ to the throne; ~ of new members.

 

INSTRUMENT

a constituent ~; an international ~; a legal ~; a legally binding ~; an ~ of accession; an ~ of aggression; an ~ of ratification; an ~ of surrender; adoption of new ~s; a compilation of international ~ s of the United Nations.

 

5.1 Suggest the English for:

1) ; 2) () ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) .

 

6. Translate into Ukrainian taking note of the words and phrases in bold type.

1. In view of the fact that the term of office of three members of the Commission was due to expire on 21 November 1980, the Director-General applied the procedure provided for in that Protocol for the replacement of the members concerned. 2. The plan should take account of the relationships between culture and science. 3. The General Conference, having taken cognizance of the conclusions of the Executive Board, invites the Director-General to submit conclusions on this matter to the fourth extraordinary session of the General Conference. 4. The next Medium-Term Plan should duly take into account the need for the public at large to understand science. 5. The General Conference, mindful that the purpose of Unesco is to contribute to peace and security, invites Member-States to take note of the Final Document of the World Congress on Disarmament Education. 6. They should take into consideration those recommendations of the Commission that lend themselves to rapid application. 7. The General Conference, considering that art plays an important part in education recommends that Member States implement the following provisions.

 

7. Memorize the phrases below, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents.

1) the states concerned; 2) a treaty left open for accession; 3) a unilateral statement; 4) concerning the terms of a treaty; 5) to accept a reservation; 6) to be bound by a treaty; 7) to make a counter offer, 8) to modify the legal effect of certain provisions; 9) to require acceptance; 10) to reopen the negotiations.

 

8. Suggest the English for:

1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) .

 

9. Translate into Ukrainian taking note of the words and phrases in bold type.

1. It is essential that all parties to the treaty should assent to the making of the reservation. 2. Without the consent of all the parties, a reservation proposed in relation to a multilateral convention cannot become effective and the reserving state cannot become a party thereto. 3. In order that any reservation whatever may be validly made in regard to a clause of the treaty, it is essential that this reservation should be accepted by all the contracting parties. 4. A state which has made and maintained a reservation which has been objected to by one or more of the parties to the convention but not by others, can be regarded as being a party to the convention if the reservation is compatible with the object and purpose of the convention. 5. If a party to the convention objects to a reservation which it considers to be incompatible with the object and purpose of the convention, it can in fact consider that the reserving state is not a party to the convention.

 

10. Read the following text, translate into Ukrainian.

Amendments to a Treaty

When a mistake is discovered in a signed treaty awaiting ratification, it may be corrected by, and the correction may be initialled by the plenipotentiaries who signed the treaty.

When it is desired to amend a treaty already ratified, or already signed and not requiring ratification, the amendment should take the form either (a) of a new treaty embodying the amendment or (b) of an Exchange of Notes or a Protocol placing it on record that, notwithstanding the text of the treaty as signed or as signed and ratified, it was to be regarded as being in force in its amended form as from the date on which it entered into force or the date of ratification or some other specified date.

 

PART 2

 

ENGLISH IDIOMS

 

SECTION 1 MEDICAL IDIOMS

1. Study These Idioms and their Meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

at death's door - very near death

back on one's feet - physically healthy again

black out - lose consciousness, faint

break out - begin showing a rash or other skin disorder

breathe one's last - to die

bring around/round - restore to health or consciousness, cure

bring to - restore to consciousness, wake from sleep / anesthesia / hypnosis /

fainting etc

catch a cold - get a cold

catch one's death of cold - become very ill (with a cold, flu etc)

check-up - a periodic inspection of a patient by a doctor

 

1.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. The Prime Minister was at death's door after suffering a serious stroke. 2. My mother is back on her feet again after being sick with the flu for two weeks. 3. The football player blacked out after being hit by the other player. 4. I broke out in a terrible rash after eating the raw shrimp at the restaurant. 5. The man finally breathed his last after a long illness. 6. The medical workers were able to bring the man around after the accident. 7. The woman was brought to soon after the car accident. 8. I caught a bad cold last week and had to miss three weeks of work. 9. The little boy was told to be careful in the rain or he would catch his death of cold. 10. I went to have my annual check-up last week.

 

1.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (1); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (1); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (1); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (1); Student H translates them into English.

 

2. Study These Idioms and their Meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

clean bill of health - a report or certificate that a person or animal is healthy

come down with - become sick with, catch

couch doctor - a psychoanalyst who puts his patients on a couch

dose/taste of one's own medicine - being treated in the same way as one treats

others (usually a negative meaning)

draw blood - make someone bleed, get blood from someone

fall ill - become sick or ill

feel on top of the world - feel very healthy

flare up - to begin again suddenly (illness etc)

flare-up - a sudden worsening of a health condition

go under the knife - be operated on in surgery

 

2.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. The doctor gave me a clean bill of health when I visited him last month. 2. My niece came down with a bad cold and was unable to visit me last week. 3. He was sent to see a couch doctor after his continued problems at work. 4. Our boss got a taste of his own medicine when people began to ignore him as he had always done to them. 5. The doctor decided to draw some blood from the patient to check up on his blood sugar level. 6. The man fell ill last winter and has not recovered yet. 7. I have been feeling on top of the world since I quit my job. 8. My mother's skin problems flared up when she started to use the new laundry soap. 9. His arthritus usually flares up every winter. 10. His wife went under the knife at the hospital last evening.

 

2.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (2); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (2); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (2); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (2); Student H translates them into English.

 

3. Study These Idioms and their Meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

hang out one's shingle - give public notice of the opening of a doctor's office

etc

have a physical (examination) - get a medical check-up

head shrinker - a psychiatrist

just what the doctor ordered - exactly what is needed or wanted

look the picture of health - be in good health

on the mend - healing, becoming better

out cold - unconscious, in a faint

over the worst - recovering from an illness

pull through - recover from a serious illness

run a temperature - have a higher than normal body temperature

 

3.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. The doctor decided to hang up his shingle as soon as he finished medical school. 2. Our company sent all the employees to have a physical last week. 3. The man was told to go and see a head shrinker after he threatened the woman in the store several times. 4. A nice hot bath was just what the doctor ordered. 5. My uncle was looking the picture of health when I saw him last week. 6. My grandfather is on the mend after he broke his leg last week. 7. As soon as the patient entered the operating room he was out cold because of the anesthesia. 8. My brother is over the worst since his skiing accident last month. 9. The car accident was very bad and I don't think that the driver will pull through. 10. The little boy is running a temperature and should stay in bed all day.

 

3.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (3); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (3); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (3); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (3); Student H translates them into English.

 

4. Study These Idioms and their Meanings. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

run down - get into poor condition

run some tests - a doctor does some medical tests on a patient

splitting headache - a severe headache

take a turn for the worse - become sicker

take someone's temperature - measure someone's body temperature

throw up - vomit

under the weather - not feeling well

 

4.1 Translate the sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the use of the idioms.

1. He was working very hard last month and has become very run down. 2. The doctor has decided to run some tests on the patient. 3.I have been suffering from a splitting headache all morning. 4. My aunt took a turn for the worse last week and is still in the hospital. 5. The nurse took my temperature when I went to the hospital yesterday. 6. The woman threw up several times after eating the bad shellfish. 7. My boss has been feeling under the weather all week and has not come to work during that time.

 

4.2 Group work:

a) Student A makes up sentences with the idioms from (4); Student B translates them into Ukrainian;

b) Student C makes up sentences in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (4); Student D translates them into English;

c) Student E makes up a situation with the idioms from (4); Student F translates it into Ukrainian;

d) Student G makes up a situation in Ukrainian using Ukrainian equivalents of the idioms from (4); Student H translates them into English.

 

Check your knowledge of medical idioms

Choose an idiom at the bottom to replace the expression in the brackets below. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

 

Variant 1

1. When we arrived at the scene of the car accident the driver was (near death).

(a) hanging out his shingle (b) drawing blood (c) at death's door (d) going under the knife

2. After walking home in the rain I (became sick with) a cold.

(a) broke out in (b) came down with (c) took a turn for the worse with (d) blacked out with

3. My father is (healthy again) after his recent illness.

(a) back on his feet (b) under the weather (c) breathing his last (d) having a physical

4. Our secretary has been working too hard and is (getting into poor condition).

(a) over the worst (b) getting a splitting headache (c) back on her feet (d) becoming run down

5. Although the man was very sick I think that he will (recover).

(a) run a temperature (b) throw up (c) pull through (d) flare up

 

Variant 2

1. I went to the doctor last week and (got a medical check-up).

(a) ran a temperature (b) had a physical (c) felt on top of the world (d) went under the knife

2. After eating the seafood at the food court the man began to (vomit).

(a) throw up (b) pull through (c) flare up (d) break out

3. The man was forced to (go to a psychiatrist) after he killed the two women.

(a) go to a head shrinker(b) go under the knife (c) breathe his last (d) pull through

4. The trainer was quickly able to (restore to consciousness) the boxer who had fainted and fell to the floor.

(a) throw up (b) pull through (c) bring to (d) black out

5. Last night my grandmother (became sicker).

(a) went under the knife (b) felt on top of the world (c) breathed her last (d) took a turn for the worse